91,680 results

  • In Pursuit of Beauty Within the Ageing Body: Voices from Older Korean Women in New Zealand

    Chung, Saemyi (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Researchers have attempted to explore the experience of ageing bodies and the use of beauty and anti ageing practices among older women. However, an insufficient number of such studies have focused on women from diverse ethnic groups, particularly older Asian women. Furthermore, even though some researchers have debated whether beauty practices are a form of oppression, these debates usually obfuscate the unique experiences of older women. These deficiencies result in a scarcity of discussions on anti-ageing practices and health management among older Asian migrant women. This study, using intersectionality as a conceptual lens, explored how older South Korean (Korean, hereafter) women in New Zealand who are located at the intersection of age (ageing) and gender perceived their ageing bodies and engaged in beauty, anti-ageing and health practices within diverse social positions and identities. The method involved conducting semi-structured individual interviews with thirty-one Korean women aged 50 to 84 living in Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Hamilton, and Queenstown. The findings were merged into two major themes: 1) the inevitable and unacceptable ageing body and 2) the tensions between choice and oppression. The first theme elucidates how attitudes towards the ageing body were paradoxical. On the one hand, the ageing body was something my participants understood as part of a natural/irresistible process. On the other hand, they consistently intervened in the natural process of ageing to transform their ageing bodies into more acceptable forms: healthy, functional, and feminine bodies with youthful and attractive appearance. They also adopted diverse lifestyles: active, productive, and successful later lives through health practices, life management, and beauty and anti-ageing practices. The second theme describes how power over their ageing bodies was exercised when they intervened at the intersection of age, gender, and/or race/ethnicity. The findings uncover how the interaction of biological attributes of the ageing body and socio-cultural climates of age and gender influenced my participants’ perceptions of their bodies. Additionally, the findings indicate how their engagements in beauty, anti-ageing, and health practices became complicated as they positioned themselves at the intersection of age/ageing, gender, race/ethnicity, and migration. The significance of this thesis lies in its contribution to illuminating the concept of the biosocial ageing body. Furthermore, it intends to challenge binary perspectives of the body, namely that between nature and culture, and to supply further knowledge to current discussions on whether women’s beauty practices are a form of oppression or choice. Lastly, this thesis discusses the implications of this research and recommendations for future research on the ageing body (ageing) and beauty practices.

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  • Hospital Admissions for Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Contributing factors, Risk prediction and Prognosis

    Ellis, Hollie Victoria (2018)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Hospitalisations for acute exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are associated with high mortality. Clinical indicators and prognostic scores have been explored previously to identify patients at heightened risk, but may also be useful in detecting patients with a good prognosis that could avoid admission. However, there are often additional social and environmental factors at play that influence patients’ reasons for admission. This thesis aims to explore these potential contributing factors in conjunction with the development of a new prognostic tool Methods: Consecutive patients were recruited following hospitalisation with a primary diagnosis of acute exacerbation of COPD. Clinical data were collected and patient and admitting doctor questionnaires were completed to gather further information regarding the reasons for admission. This cohort was then used to validate a proposed prognostic tool, the CANT score, comprised of a composite score of CURB65 score ≥ 2, Acidaemia (pH 220pmol/L and Troponin >0.03µg/L. The primary outcomes related to this score were all-cause mortality at 30-days and 1-year and cardio-respiratory related re-admissions over the same time period. Results: 305 patients were recruited across 3 New Zealand sites. The majority of patients had severe COPD as classified by the GOLD spirometry guidelines, and 13.5% of patients had long-term oxygen therapy at home prior to admission. Inpatient mortality was 1.6% (n=5). At 30-days post admission, mortality was 3.6% (n=11) and at 1-year 19.0% (n = 52). Readmissions for cardiac or respiratory related illnesses were 22.6% and 62.8% at 30-days and 1-year respectively. Raised NT-proBNP (>220pmol/L) and troponin (>0.03µg/L) on admission were associated with death at 1-year (p <0.05). Elevated NT-proBNP was also associated with death at 30-days (OR 3.6, CI 1.06-12.22, p = 0.04). The area under the receiver operating curve for mortality at 30-days post admission for the CANT score in this cohort was 0.68, which was lower than in the derivation (0.86) and internal validation cohorts (0.82). The majority of patients were admitted due to the requirement for hospital level treatment, however the admitting doctors suggested that up to 30% of admissions could be avoided if additional support, such as acute personal cares or GP home visits, were available in the community. Over 40% of patients reported issues with GP availability, 25% reported avoiding seeing the GP due to cost and 17% due to lack of transport. Conclusion: We have been unable to externally validate the use of the CANT score as an effective short-term prognostic tool following acute COPD exacerbation, due to a lower than expected mortality rate at 30-days in this cohort. Elevated NT-proBNP and troponin on admission were associated with an increased mortality at 1-year and NT-proBNP with an increased mortality at 30-days, inferring that these cardiac biomarkers are predictors of short and long-term prognosis following COPD exacerbation. Cost, lack of transport and availability of GP services may contribute to patient admissions in addition to the clinical need for hospital level treatment. The majority of admissions are likely to be unavoidable, unless considerable increased resources can be provided in the community.

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  • Isolation of a polyketide synthase gene from Dothistroma pini : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Molecular Biology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Morgan, Branwen

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Dothistromin is a polyketide derived mycotoxin, produced by Dothistroma pini, which is structurally related to aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus. Southern blot analysis of D. pini genomic DNA was carried out using a probe (KS-2) encoding the highly conserved β keto-acyl synthase domain from the polyketide synthase gene (pksLl) of A. parasiticus, which indicated the presence of a homologous gene in strain Dp 2 of D. pini. Subsequently, KS-2 hybridising lambda clones were isolated from a D. pini genomic library. A 2411 bp fragment was subcloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis recognised two functional protein domains, (β keto-acyl synthase (KS) and acyl transferase (AT), both of which are present in fatty acid and polyketide synthases. The sequence exhibited high homology with A. nidulans wA and A. parasiticus PKSL1 (62.3% and 59.9%) respectively, but only slight homology with the 6-MSA gene from Penicillium patulum and the atX gene from Aspergillus tereus. Additionally, a BLASTX search revealed some similarities with a number of FASs, although PKS genes had the highest scoring segment pairs. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that the 2.4 kb subcloned fragment encodes part of the D. pini PKS (pksDp) which synthesises the backbone polyketide and initiates dothistromin biosynthesis.

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  • The influence of habitual dietary intake on the responsiveness of the gut microbiota to a dietary intervention : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Nutritional Science at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Healey, Genelle Rose

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Preliminary evidence suggests that inter-individual variability in gut microbiota response to a dietary intervention is influenced by baseline gut microbiota composition. Differing habitual dietary intakes lead to distinctions in baseline gut microbiota composition making it plausible that habitual dietary intake may also influence gut microbiota response. Prior to conducting this research no studies had been undertaken to determine whether habitual dietary intake has an impact on gut microbiota responsiveness. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate the influence habitual dietary intake has on gut microbiota response to a dietary intervention. Initially, secondary data analysis was conducted to determine whether there was any support for the hypothesis that individuals with differing habitual dietary intakes would have gut microbiota that respond in a distinctive manner to a dietary intervention. The secondary data analysis results demonstrated that dietary groups rich in dietary fibre had the greatest impact on gut microbiota responsiveness. An in vitro three-stage colonic model system study was conducted to determine whether media with differing fermentable carbohydrate (i.e. dietary fibre) contents influenced gut microbiota response to an inulin-type fructan prebiotic. It was demonstrated that differing prebiotic driven changes in organic acids and bacterial taxa occurred between the low (LFC) and high fermentable carbohydrate (HFC) content media. The results of the secondary data analysis and in vitro study provided evidence to suggest that a human intervention study was warranted. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, human intervention study in 34 healthy participants was undertaken to determine whether habitual dietary fibre intake influenced gut microbiota response to an inulin-type fructan prebiotic. The results of the human intervention study demonstrated that the low habitual dietary fibre (LDF) group harboured gut microbiota that were less responsive to the inulin-type fructan prebiotic than the high habitual dietary fibre (HDF) group. Future studies which aim to modulate the gut microbiota via dietary change or to determine the prebiotic potential of a novel fermentable substrate should take habitual dietary fibre intakes into consideration when recruiting participants or analysing the data. This will help reduce the confounding influence of inter-individual variability in gut microbiota responsiveness and ensure the true efficacy of a dietary intervention is demonstrated.

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  • Effect of age on the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in ISA Brown chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Physiology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Gildersleve, Megan

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory drug (NSAID) meloxicam has been deemed a safe and effective treatment for numerous inflammatory conditions and injuries from extensive pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in various mammalian species. However, there is a lack of meloxicam pharmacokinetic information in avian species. This leads to pharmacokinetic data being extrapolated from mammals in order to administer and treat birds. This often leads to ineffective pain relief or overdoses that can be fatal for birds. Due to this void in literature this study was designed to increase the basic pharmacokinetic knowledge in birds but to also determine if age affects the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in ISA Brown chickens. Meloxicam was injected intravenously (IV) at 2 mg/kg in 20 healthy ISA Brown chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). One group consisted of 10 ISA brown chickens that were 18 weeks old, the second group consisted of 10 ISA Brown chickens that were 24 months old. Serial blood samples were withdrawn from a catheterised vein from each ISA Brown chicken into a heparinised vial at 0, 10, 20, 30 minutes, 1, 4, 8, 10, 12 hours after the administration of meloxicam. The pharmacokinetics for ISA Brown chickens were calculated using the non-compartmental model, which was analysed using the mean data from each group of ISA Brown chickens. The elimination half-life, steady state volume of distribution and mean resident time were significantly higher in the 24 month old ISB Brown chickens compared to the 18 week old ISA Brown chickens. Overall, the results indicate that as an ISA Brown chicken ages the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam show some significant changes in crucial pharmacokinetic parameters. The differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters may ultimately affect the efficacy of meloxicam when treating ‘geriatric’ birds due to possible age-related health issues in the liver and kidneys, which are major organs involved in processing drugs.

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  • Key determinants of breastfeeding success in infants born before 30 weeks gestation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

    Thomas, Carol Lesley

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Breastfeeding is promoted at a public health level by many agencies internationally and nationally. While there is an abundance of literature to guide practice regarding breastfeeding term healthy infants, there is little regarding premature infants, particularly those born before 30 weeks gestation. Data on breastfeeding outcomes in this population is limited in the New Zealand literature. The aims of the study were to identify the breastfeeding outcomes of premature infants born before 30 weeks gestation: to identify key determinants that may contribute to the success of breastfeeding outcomes; and to describe the feeding practices of this population during hospitalisation and post-discharge. This audit used a non-experimental, cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational design using pre-existing medical records, to obtain variables of interest. Independent variables included maternal and infant characteristic and infant feeding characteristic. Key determinant variables were identified as maternal support, maternal milk supply, kangaroo care and bottle use. Feeding problems and growth were also considered as independent variables. Breastfeeding outcomes are comparable to the New Zealand population of breastfed infants in duration but not intensity of breast milk received. Maori and Polynesian infants have poorer breastfeeding outcomes compared to Caucasian and Asian infants and have higher rates of feeding problems. Further research is required to identify the cause of increased feeding problems in these cultures.

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  • Investigation of genetic changes in inoculant strains of Rhizobium trifolii isolated from the soil : a thesis presented in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Microbiology at Massey University

    O'Hara, Michael John

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Information about the fate of plant inoculating strains of Rhizobium trifolii entering the soil environment is incomplete. It is known that inoculating strains must compete with existing adapted strains, if such are present. It is not known whether or not the introduced strains can adapt to soil conditions. Strains of the white clover (Trifolium repens) symbiont, R. trifolii, were isolated from plants growing as a result of sowing virgin soil with bacteria-coated seed. Rhizobium bacteria were isolated from one nodule on each randomly chosen plant at two and then six months after sowing. Three different methods were used to type the isolated strains because of the importance of distinguishing between derivatives of the inoculant (R. trifolii #2668) and adapted rhizobia immigrating from adjacent pastures. Gel diffusion identification of antigens showed that all strains reacted positively to anti-2668 serum, although the response was not identical for all strains. The determination of intrinsic antibiotic resistance patterns showed that low level resistances were accumulating in a non-random manner as time progressed. Initial isolates showed the same pattern as 2668. Restriction endonuclease analysis of the isolated strains showed them all to have a high degree of similarity to 2668, with a few being identical in pattern. This was despite alterations in numbers and sizes of plasmids (as compared to those in 2668) seen in these isolates. A nif gene probe of a plasmid profile showed that several strains had alterations in the size and number of bands which would hybridize, as compared to 2668. The field isolated strains had gained the ability to produce a broad range bacteriocin-like inhibitor. Conjugation experiments between R. trifolii #0/18 and E. coli HB101 showed that this inhibitor was transferable to and expressable by the E. coli, strain. This suggests the existence of a broad host range replicon in the field isolates which either carries or mobilizes this function.

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  • An investigation of the validity of a section of a theoretical model to predict work physiology parameters from age and weight : a research project presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies at Massey University

    Jeffrey, Glyn

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Work physiology is the study of physiological parameters of the body during work. Two of these physiological parameters are commonly measured to assess the cost of work : oxygen consumption and heart rate. In 1979 a theoretical model was developed to estimate some ergonomic parameters from age, height and weight. While this model predicted anthropometric, biomechanical and work physiology parameters, the present research was concerned only with the section of the model predicting work physiology parameters of oxygen consumption and heart rate from age and weight. In this study oxygen consumption and heart rate values were obtained from measurement of seven subjects working on an ergometer. These values were then used to test three of the equations in the predictive model. Two of the equations were found to be unreliable as predictors of oxygen consumption and heart rate for this sample, while one of the equations was found to be reliable. Further research with a larger sample is necessary before any firm conclusions about this section of the model may be made.

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  • Investigation of a novel intein-based Escherichia coli expression system for human methylmalonyl CoA mutase : a thesis presented to Massey University in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry

    Clark, Alice Rosemary

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Human methylmalonyl CoA mutase (hMCM) is a 78 kDa homodimeric mitochondrial matrix enzyme. hMCM catalyses the conversion of 2R-methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA in the metabolism of propionyl groups, and requires the vitamin B12 -derived cofactor adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl). The mechanism of catalysis involves homolytic cleavage of AdoCbl's unusual C-Co bond, to generate radicals. Dysfunctional hMCM results in the rare, potentially fatal metabolic disorder methylmalonic acidemia. An experimentally determined structure of hMCM would add to the understanding of both the mechanism of catalysis and the molecular basis of some of the mutations underlying methylmalonic acidemia. The structure of the bacterial orthologue from Propionibacterium shermanii has been solved by x-ray crystallography, enabling the development of structural models of hMCM. Critical differences, however, between these two enzymes, mean that some regions of the models could be inaccurate. There is no x-ray crystal structure of hMCM. Purification of native hMCM for crystallization trials is complicated by ethical problems, low yields, and heterogeneity generated by the cofactor. To provide a more convenient source of pure, active human methylmalonyl CoA mutase for x-ray crystallography, an expression system for recombinant hMCM is required. Other researchers have expressed hMCM in Escherichia coli as (i) insoluble inclusion bodies, (ii) soluble fusion protein that cannot be separated efficiently from the fusion tag, or (iii) in low quantities. This research aimed to develop an E. coli expression system for the production of active human methylmalonyl CoA mutase, to enable x-ray crystallography structural studies. Based on the results of previous expression systems, four novel expression vectors were developed utilising the maltose binding protein and thioredoxin as solubility tags. It was hoped that conventional protease cleavage, to remove these solubility tags, could be circumvented by the use of intein-mediated cleavage. Intein-mediated cleavage was successful, and soluble active hMCM was recovered in low yields from a C-terminal thioredoxin solubility tag construct. hMCM was insoluble when expressed with MBP at the C-terminus.

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  • Investigation of the relationships that exist between athletic training, hormones and sleep in young healthy male athletes : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Physiology at Massey University

    Blackmore, Lara

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Background. Many people engage in exercise for recreation, to promote personal health and as a profession. Accordingly there is wide ranging interest in the factors that affect a person's performance during exercise and in how that performance can both he assessed and enhanced. The physiological basis of exercise performance and its enhancement have been investigated for many years. Such investigations in people are impeded by the understandable reluctance of participants to provide significant numbers of blood samples by venepuncture. The recent development of an ultrasound method for non-invasive sampling of extracellular fluid, called transdermal electrosonophoresis (ESP), offers tremendous opportunities for benign monitoring of physiological responses involving changes in blood/extracellular fluid composition associated with exercise and indeed in clinical settings. Sleep quality/quantity is considered to have significant impact on training effectiveness and performance, with poor sleep correlated with poor athletic outcome. The link here is considered to involve growth hormone, as poor sleep quality/quantity diminishes growth hormone concentrations and reduced growth hormone concentrations impede training induced muscle development. Training effectiveness and recovery have been monitored in past research through measurement of blood hormone profiles, in particular the testosterone: cortisol ratio. The overall objective of this study was to validate the use of ESP as a non-invasive blood sampling technique through the study of the relationships that exist between exercise, fatigability, fitness, and hormone levels in blood, saliva and extracellular fluid and the investigation of the impact of spontaneous sleep disturbances on these relationships in young healthy male athletes. Methods. Plasma, ESP and saliva samples were taken regularly from 14 male rugby players during a four-week study. The plasma and ESP samples were analysed for testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone concentration. The saliva samples were analysed only for testosterone and cortisol levels. Fitness was assessed each week using a maximal treadmill test and fatigability was also investigated. Sleep quantity/quality was investigated using personal sleep logs which the participants filled out daily. In addition the participants' alcohol consumption was reported in the sleep log. Results. Correlations between hormone concentrations measured in plasma and FSP were higher than the correlations for plasma and saliva. The results here were highly significant. An equation was derived to estimate plasma concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone using the concentrations of the hormones measured in ESP samples. Few statistically significant relationships between hormone profiles, sleep quality/quantity and athletic training were revealed in the analysis of the results of this study. A negative correlation was found between the mean plasma cortisol concentration measured in the morning and the estimated VO2 , and also between the cortisol concentration measured in the ESP sample and estimated VO2max , but this did not quite reach significance. A negative correlation between estimated VO2max and the mean total time asleep for the previous three or four nights was revealed. Conclusions. ESP sample analysis provides a more accurate estimation of testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone concentrations in plasma than saliva sample analysis does.

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  • Is Queenstown a sanctuary? : a retrospective study of the preparation, mitigation and recovery of the Queenstown community from the effects of the Queenstown flood and hazard slip events of 1999 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Richardson, Vivien

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Using a salutogenic paradigm, the present study examined the factors that contributed to hardiness and resilience, in the Queenstown community, following the flood and slip events of November 1999. It was hypothesised that sense of community, coping style, self-efficacy, and social support would predict stress, as measured by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-21 (HSCL). It was also hypothesised that unique environmental qualities of Queenstown, i.e. the lakes, mountains, small community and being a visitor destination, would make a significant contribution to participants sense of community. Hazard knowledge, preparation and mitigation, with particular reference to flood hazards was also examined Additionally, in depth interviews with a high intensity sample of participants, were also carried out. This qualitative information was intended to examine the strengths within the community that had helped the community to deal with the flood and slip events. Additionally, the interviews were used as a forum, for participants to raise their own issues, relating to these events. The hypothesis that the selected variables would predict resilience, was not supported, but support was found for the importance of the unique physical and environmental qualities of Queenstown to residents. The interview results provided support for the view that the Queenstown community was able to withstand the effects of the flood and slip events, with recovery of businesses and tourism being almost complete at four months post event. Though some of those properties affected by the event could never be restored, resulting in irreplaceable losses and changes to individuals' lives, the community showed remarkable strengths and had done much to address inadequacies highlighted by the events.

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  • Isolation and characterisation of the Drosphila dror2 gene : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Genetics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Frith, Kathryn Joy

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are a family of cell-surface receptors that have an important role in an array of cellular responses including cell migration, proliferation and differentiation (Fantl et al., 1993). RTKs and their ligands are important components in the determination of cell fate through signalling pathways that are activated during both invertebrate and vertebrate development (Pawson and Bernstein, 1990). The Ror subfamily of RTKs are thought to be important for the development of the nervous system as they are expressed highly in the nervous system in the developing embryo, but expression is minimal in adults. Three receptors in this subfamily have been identified. Rorl and Ror2 from humans (Masiakowski and Carroll, 1992) and Dror from Drosophila (Wilson et al., 1993). This thesis involved the isolation and characterisation of the fourth gene in this family Dror2 from Drosophila melanogaster. Degenerate oligonucleotides to conserved regions of the tyrosine kinase domain of RTKs were used to PCR amplify a 200 bp fragment from genomic DNA. A λ genomic library was screened with the labelled fragment in order to isolate the gene. The resulting clone was subcloned and sequenced to obtain the complete sequence of Dror2. The 3' end of the gene was determined by RT-PCR. The transcriptional start point was identified by using 5' RACE and sequencing of the amplification product. Expression of Dror2 was examined using Northern Blot hybridisation and in situ hybridisation to whole mount embryos. The 725 amino acid mature Dror2 protein comprises an extracellular domain containing the signal peptide, cysteine-rich region and kringle domain, a hydrophobic transmembrane domain and the intracellular domain containing a catalytic kinase domain. Three introns were identified, one in the middle of the cysteine-rich region and two flanking the kringle domain.

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  • Representing the one left over: A social semiotic perspective of students’ use of screen casting

    Murphy, Carol; Calder, Nigel Stuart (2017)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    This paper examines the potential of using screen casting with an iPad to enhance learning in mathematics. Data are presented from two seven-year-old students as they use the Explain Everything app to solve a division with remainder problem (DWR). A social semiotic perspective was used to interpret students’ use of multiple modes as they represented the mathematical ideas within the context of the problem. We consider how a social semiotic perspective has the potential to draw attention to the students’ interests and emerging expressions in representing mathematical relationships. We further consider how the use of representations in the app might relate to student learning.

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  • Exploring Critical Alternatives for Youth Development through Lifestyle Sport: Surfing and Community Development in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Wheaton, Belinda; Roy, Georgina; Olive, Rebecca (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    While competition-based team sports remain dominant in community and sport-for-development programs, researchers are exploring the value of alternative, less “sportized” activities such as lifestyle/action sports. In this paper, we explore the ways in which surfing is being used in development programs in Aotearoa/New Zealand, examining the perceived social benefits and impact. Our methods involved: (a) mapping the range of surfing projects; and (b) 8 in-depth interviews with program personnel. Widespread conviction in the positive developmental benefits of surfing was evident, and that surfing had a “special” capacity to reform or heal those who participate in it. However, the ways in which individuals’ self-developments were promoted appear to be following the traditional sport/youth development path. They focus on policies aimed at improved life chances, equipping youth with the tools for self-improvement and self-management, inculcating self-governance and self-reliance. However, a counter narrative co-existed, highlighting surfing as a freeing experience, which, rather than restoring social order, works to instigate a personal transformation or awakening. Despite the range of challenges presented by surfing as a tool for positive development, surfing presents a potentially “critical alternative” which if sport-for-development programs are to be a form of social change, we should remain open to exploring.

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  • Why do I need research and theory? A guide for social workers, by Jennifer Anderson-Meger[Book Review]

    Hunt, Sonya (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book “Why do I need research and theory? A guide for social workers”, by Jennifer Anderson-Meger.

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  • Transition to professional social work practice: The first three years

    Hunt, Sonya; Tregurtha, Melanie; Kuruvila, Albert; Lowe, Simon; Smith, Kelly (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article presents the findings of a longitudinal research project that followed the employ-ment outcomes of one cohort of Bachelor of Social Work graduates for three years. Prior to graduation, students receive professional preparation that develops their ability to critically engage with theory and practice. Following graduation, newly qualified social workers require quality induction, supervision and other workload management strategies to support the transition to social work practice. The development of this study was fuelled by political criticism of social work education. Additionally, there was a desire to track the employment outcomes of the graduates and understand what supported their transition to competent professional practice. The findings fit within a five-year longitudinal research project that follows three separate graduate cohorts each for three years to seek and compare participants’ experiences for their first three years post-qualification. An anonymous, semi-structured, on-line survey was used to provide both quantitative and qualitative data. By the second year of practice, these respond-ents were taking on the workload of an experienced social work practitioner with widely varied levels of support. By the end of their third year in practice, they reported that they had found little opportunity to apply their critical analytical academic skills to consider the wider social system in practice. Further, the graduates’ confidence in their cultural competencies also gradually decreased over the three-year period.

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  • Perspectives on counselling supervision in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Crocket, Kathie (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article is based on an invited keynote address delivered at the first New Zealand Association of Counsellors’ National Supervision Conference Day in July 2017. It considers questions that have continued to be significant for professional supervision over time in counselling in Aotearoa New Zealand, noting considerations for contemporary practice. It reviews a range of research studies of supervision, highlighting recent contributions to discussions of culture and supervision and the use of e-technology in supervision. long white cloud our map in the sky (Robin Fry, 2008)1

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  • There must be a better way - The case against the New Zealand Literacy Strategy and some examples of how we can help students who fall by the wayside

    Dymock, Susan (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Literate cultural capital is a phrase used to describe the literacy knowledge and skills children have on school entry (Prochnow, Tunmer & Arrow, 2015; Tunmer & Nicholson, 2011). Literacy knowledge and skills include oral language, vocabulary, an awareness of how books operate, letter name knowledge, letter sound knowledge, phonological awareness, and invented spelling (Prochnow, Tunmer & Arrow, 2015). Children who commence school with a good level of literate cultural capital are advantaged and are more likely to develop age-appropriate reading skills as they progress through school compared to children who commence school with little literate cultural capital.

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  • By rule or by rote? To what extent does children’s spelling improve as a result of learning words with the LOOK, SAY, COVER, WRITE, CHECK, FIX strategy, compared with phonological spelling strategies?

    Dymock, Susan; Nicholson, Tom (2017)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    The present study was a randomised controlled trial designed to compare the effects of two spelling interventions on spelling of taught words and transfer words. The sample consisted of 55 seven-year-olds, including proficient and less proficient spellers, in two Year 3 classrooms. The spelling interventions were for three lessons per week, 20-minutes per lesson, over 10 weeks. In the first intervention we taught eight spelling strategies that showed children how to stretch out the sounds in words and how to use different phonological spelling strategies, including how to spell short and long vowel sounds and phonics strategies, such as use of the silent e marker, how to break long words into syllables, and the doubling rule. In the second intervention students learned the LOOK, SAY, COVER, WRITE, CHECK, FIX strategy along with putting words to be learned into alphabetical order and writing each word in a sentence. They were not taught any strategies or rules. The control group completed comprehension, vocabulary, and punctuation activities. In order to see if the control group might implicitly learn the words, all groups in all lessons were exposed to the same words by reading a story to them that contained the words. Results for taught words showed that both intervention conditions increased participants’ spelling at an equivalent rate, greater than that of the control condition. For transfer words not taught but that followed similar patterns to the taught words, the strategy intervention showed greater transfer to spelling new words with similar patterns compared with the LOOK, SAY, COVER, WRITE, CHECK, FIX condition and the control condition. For this reason we conclude that although both intervention approaches had strong local effects in terms of learning to spell specific words, teaching rule-based spelling strategies had more global effects in terms of transfer to new words than the LOOK, SAY, COVER, WRITE, CHECK, FIX for both proficient and less proficient spellers.

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  • Vocational Survival: Expanding the Film Value Chain for the Independent Filmmaker

    Jackson, Fiona (2018)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    As a case-study in the occupational sociology of the creative industries, this thesis develops an argument for expanding the traditional FilmValue Chain model in order to address what it means to be an independent filmmaker. The research focuses specifically on the filmmaker’s journey or course of action, rather than on film aesthetics or artistry, and ultimately presents this as a structured series of stages. To reach an understanding of this structure, the research combines (auto)ethnography with Grounded Theory in order to develop a thick description that moves between practical experience and emergent concepts. The exposed structure of an independent’s filmmaking career progresses through four frameworks: exploration, focus, independence, and establishment. The exploration stage is dominated by a high level of simple autonomy-orientation. The focus stage is dominated by growing realisation that the simple autonomy-orientation is too simple and a different orientation is needed. The independence and establishment levels encompass a complex autonomy orientation. The presentation of the research draws heavily on both identity theory and the emerging research paradigm of performative ethnography, and one chapter takes the form of a screenplay which interacts creatively with the other chapters, the synthesis of which has produced a model of independent practices. By extending John Caldwell’s analysis of industrial “promotional surrounds” (IPS), which identifies the dominant corporate and labour practices and “logics” in relation to which independents necessarily define themselves, this thesis articulates the nature of an “independent promotional surround” with its distinctive actors and logics. Finally, it proposes that this IPS expresses a discourse of independence and that an expansion of the traditional Film Value Chain model will recognise the tensions around which this discourse organises itself.

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