82,496 results

  • Evaluating the Media’s Role in Public and Political Responses to Human-Shark Interactions in NSW, Australia

    Fraser-Baxter, Sam Ezra (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Of all animals that pose danger to humans in this world, few are more feared than sharks. Human-shark interactions are traumatic, emotional and difficult to rationalize. While rare, human-shark interactions generate a disproportionate amount of media coverage and public debate. The mass media is widely attributed with the continuation of negative discourses of sharks through sensationalized, emotive and graphic documentation of human-shark interactions. During 2015, New South Wales, Australia experienced an unprecedented spike in human-shark interactions, which saw the escalation of public anxieties surrounding water safety and the development of the state’s Shark Management Strategy, announced in late 2015. Of the state’s 14 human-shark interactions that took place, 8 were recorded on the state’s North Coast. An unusual concentrated distribution of sharks in near shore waters was widely reported by surfers, fisherman and pilots. The interactions ignited considerable public debate, which sought to explain the spike in interactions and how to manage the risk of human-shark interaction. The public and political responses to the interactions were documented thoroughly by the media. Previous literature has established an understanding of the way the media communicates human-shark interactions, public perceptions of sharks and the relationships between the media, publics and governments in the development of shark management policy. McCagh et. al (2015) have explored the role of media discourse in the development of shark management policy. The methods used in this study are largely built upon methods carried out by McCagh et. al (2015) and seeks to develop them in terms of scope and depth. The objective of the study was to evaluate the role of the media in the development of shark management policy in NSW. Discourse analysis was used to investigate two newspaper’s reports of human-shark interactions on the North Coast to provide insights into the media’s communication of human-shark interactions, patterns of public and political response to human-shark interactions and the development of shark management policy. The findings of this study show that the discourse used by the media examined is not fear-laden, sensationalized or emotive which previous studies have emphasized. Instead there is an evident tension between anthropocentric and eco-centric values in both the media and the government’s communication of human-shark interactions. Discourse surrounding management solutions offered by the media echoed that of the NSW state government; that management should be non-lethal, trialed and scientifically validated. Analysis of responses to human-shark interactions paints a picture of the intricate political and social processes at play following clusters of human-shark interactions. This study highlights the need for a paradigm shift in shark management that sees the responsibility of water-safety and the onus and responsibility of risk moving away from governments and further towards the public. Based on the efficacy of management solutions offered by the government and the timing of their announcement after human-shark interactions during heightened public anxieties, this study concludes that shark management in NSW was not meaningfully focused on reducing the risk of human and sharks interacting, but instead at placating and calming public fears surrounding water safety.

    View record details
  • The Epidemiology of Cervical Cancer in Ghana

    Nartey, Yvonne (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is a significant health issue worldwide. It is the fourth most common cancer among women with more than 85% of new cases of the disease occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in Ghana. Incidence and mortality rates are unknown due to an absence of a national-based population cancer registry. HPV positivity has been shown to be a necessary initiator of cervical cancer but the infection progresses to cancer only in a small number of women. Cofactors associated with the disease progression are not well understood. The study was designed to assess the epidemiology of cervical cancer in Ghana. AIMS: • Estimate the regional cervical cancer incidence and mortality using data from two large referral hospitals in Ghana. • Use results from the above study to estimate national incidence and mortality rates of the disease. • Estimate the 1, 3 and 5 year disease-specific survival rates of Ghanaian women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer. • Determine the HPV DNA prevalence and prevailing HPV types present in Ghanaian women with and without cervical cancer. • Determine the associations between cofactors and a woman’s risk of developing cervical cancer in Ghana. METHODS: Medical records and other hospital data of women diagnosed with cervical cancer from January 2010 to December 2013 were reviewed at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, and Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, in Ghana. Telephone interviews were also conducted for patients and relatives to gather further information. To assess the risk factors for cervical cancer in Ghana, a hospital-based case-control study was undertaken. Women aged 18-95 years with a new diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer that had been histologically confirmed were considered for inclusion as cases. Controls were a random selection from the same hospitals as the cases. A structured questionnaire was administered to the women after which a request for a cervical smear was made for the reporting of cytological abnormalities and laboratory detection of HPV DNA to establish the HPV types present. RESULTS: Using the data from review of medical records and telephone interviews, the incidence, mortality and survival rates of women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer in Ghana were estimated. An increased risk of cervical cancer with age was found. The incidence rate of cervical cancer was highest for women aged 75-79 years and decreased at older ages. Incidence and mortality rates were higher in the Greater Accra and Ashanti regions of Ghana than for other regions. At three years from diagnosis, overall disease-specific survival was 39%. Unsurprisingly, stage at presentation and histological type were strong predictors of cervical cancer survival. Some forms of treatment were also associated with better survival than others. A total of 206 women with incident cervical cancer and 230 controls were recruited for the case-control study to identify possible risk factors and cofactors for cervical cancer in Ghana. The results of the case-control study confirmed many known established risk factors associated with cervical cancer. These included age, an increased number of pregnancies, higher parity and oral contraceptive use. In addition, use of firewood for cooking, use of homemade sanitary towels and having a polygamous husband was associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer in this study after adjustment for the presence of highest oncogenic HPV types. High prevalence of HPV was detected among women with cervical cancer (80.1%). HPV types 45, 16, 18, 35 and 52 were the most common types detected among cases. Knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer was very low overall among women with and without cervical cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the presence of high-risk oncogenic HPV DNA, parity and oral contraceptive use was associated with an increase risk of cervical cancer in Ghana. The results of the research suggest that the identification of factors associated with the progression of HPV positivity to invasive cervical cancer may help reduce the burden of cervical cancer in Ghana. In addition, the development of a cancer control programme that takes into consideration the social and cultural factors for the prevention, early detection and diagnosis, treatment and palliative aspects of cervical cancer is needed to combat the disease.  

    View record details
  • Exploring undergraduate students’ perceptions of factors influencing their engagement and alienation in higher education

    Asare, Samuel (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Student engagement has been identified as having a positive influence on learning and retention. This has attracted much research on how to enhance engagement in higher education. Studies have considered the role of student motivation and various environmental factors that affect engagement. However, these studies are concentrated in Western countries including US, Canada, UK, Australia and New Zealand. The few done in Africa have been in South Africa. Drawing on Mann’s (2001) framework of engagement and alienation, this study explores undergraduate students’ perceptions of factors influencing their engagement and alienation in a public university in Ghana. The study adopted a case study design underpinned by an interpretive approach to provide a broad and in-depth understanding of how student motivation interacts with factors relating to teachers, family and peers to produce engaged and alienated experiences. Three data sources were drawn upon in this study: survey, diary and interview. The survey included 469 Humanities students selected by quota sampling from main campus, city campus and distance learning across all year levels. Of the 469 students surveyed, 225 agreed to keep a diary of their learning experiences for two days and participate in a one-on-one interview. Purposive sampling was used to select 17 students for diaries and interviews by considering both male and females, year of study, mode of study (distance learning, city campus and main campus) as well as respondents’ availability for interviews. This ensured that data were collected from a wide range of perspectives. The analysis was in two forms. First, survey data were analysed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to find percentages and means of the responses. In addition, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and t-tests were conducted to determine any differences among students’ perceptions at the time of the survey. In some instances, where there were differences, a post hoc test was conducted to determine which groups were different from each other. Second, data from diaries and interviews were analysed using the general inductive approach to develop themes relating to the objectives of the study. The analysis was guided by a framework that highlighted students reported engaged and alienated experiences. The study resulted in a new conceptual framework that brings the various parts of the findings together. This study suggested that students’ need for belonging, competence and autonomy spurred them on to invest more time and effort in their learning. However, autonomy and belonging had different influences depending on the year of study. First year students reported the highest level of influence compared with students of other year levels. Engagement was influenced by students’ desire to achieve goals: to be knowledgeable; for postgraduate study; and to gain a high-paying job. In addition, students reported engaged and alienated experiences resulting from four teacher factors: level of knowledge; teaching approaches; relationships with students; and support. Also, almost all students received support from their family and most of them thought that family support had a lot of influence on their engagement. Engagement was influenced by financial and social support as well as the monitoring of their academic performance by their parents. Interactions with peers influenced engagement in academic and social ways. For instance, students shared learning material such as textbooks, lecture notes and computers. Furthermore, students reported improved self-confidence and a better understanding of their subject by interacting with their peers in formal and informal contexts. Despite the positive influence of peers, a small number of students reported feeling pressured by their peers to spend most of their study time partying, and some members not contributing during group study. The findings add an alternative voice to the growing literature on student engagement by presenting data from a context that has not been explored in this way before. It has shown the usefulness of engagement and alienation as a framework to investigate students’ learning in higher education. The few existing studies that have applied the framework did not analyse data as has been done in this study. Thus, this study has provided new insights. In addition, the findings revealed that students have the desire to work hard to achieve their goals, but these desires will need positive contributions from the environment to achieve much results. Summarising, the implications of the findings include the need for higher education institutions to invest in teacher professional development and to seek ways to collaborate with families of students who may be struggling academically, to enhance their engagement.

    View record details
  • Variation in the grain properties of maize hybrids with different grain hardness characteristics and their response to nitrogen fertilizer in terms of milling quality : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Plant Science (Seed Technology) at Massey University

    Patwary, A.N.M. Mahbubur Rahman (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The proportion of grits and flour produced during the dry milling of maize (Zea mays L.) grain is related to the ratio of hard to soft endosperm. The quality standards required vary widely with different end uses, and for dry milling a hybrid with a 'hard' endosperm will usually yield the highest proportion of grits. The texture of the maize endosperm is variable and depends on the maize hybrid and agronomic conditions. In general the available literature showed protein concentration of the grain can be improved by nitrogen fertilizer application, and as the protein content increases, the amount of hard endosperm increases along with value to the miller. A field trial to investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on grain yield and quality, especially grain protein content and hardness, was carried out at the Frewens block, Massey University in the 1994/95 season. Three maize hybrids (P3751, P3787 and A82-8 xNZ84) with three different endosperm textures (soft, intermediate and hard) were grown at two sowings (October and November) with three different nitrogen levels (0, 250, 500kg urea/ha). Urea fertilizer was applied as a side dressing and split into three application times, i.e. at the three leaf stage, at canopy closure and at the 50% silking stage. Plant growth and development were measured by counting the leaf number and leaf appearance rate, formation of the black layer and grain moisture dry down for each hybrid. Grain yields and yield components were measured for different nitrogen treatments at both sowings. Grain protein content was measured from total nitrogen percentage as determined by the Macro Kjeldhal method. Grain hardness was measured by a Stenvert Hardness Tester, while bulk density and grain moisture content were measured by a grain analysis computer. The total number of leaves per plant was greater in hybrid A82-8xNZ84 than hybrids P3787 and P3751 at both sowings, but rate of leaf appearance was faster for the November sowing than the October sowing. Formation of the 'black layer' (i.e physiological maturity) and moisture dry down rate was faster in hybrid P3787 than in hybrids P3751 and A82-8xNZ84 at both sowings. Grain yield was significantly increased at both sowings by the application of 250kg/ha urea, but not by the 500kg urea/ha treatment. Hybrid A82-8xNZ84 gave the highest yield and P3787 gave the lowest. The main yield components which differed between hybrids were number of grains per cob and 100-grain weight. Grain protein content increased progressively in response to the applied nitrogen fertilizer. Protein percentage increased from 8.81% in the control to 10.13% for 500kg urea/ha in the October sowing, and 8.72% in the control to 10.13% for 500kg urea/ha in the November sowing. At both sowings all three hybrids contained the highest amount of protein at the highest urea treatment i.e. 500kg urea/ha. Increased nitrogen application improved grain hardness. For those grains grown under higher nitrogen levels grinding resistance time, energy required for grinding and milling duration time were higher than grains grown when no urea was applied. Grain bulk density (test weight) increased as nitrogen increased. Hybrids A82-8xNZ84 and P3787 had higher grain hardness under the high nitrogen treatment than hybrid P3751. There was a strong, positive relationship between grain protein content and Stenvert Hardness Test parameters at both sowings. When nitrogen was applied grain contained a higher amount of protein (which presumably made grain harder) than the no applied nitrogen treatment. Inherent endosperm texture was not changed by the increased protein percentage as the soft endosperm hybrid did not show an improved hardness, but the intermediate and hard endosperm hybrids showed an improvement in this regard. Results from both sowings indicated grain yield, protein and hardness quality can be improved by applying nitrogen fertilizer. This has implications for dry milling, where hard grain is a necessity for higher grits recovery.

    View record details
  • Web-course search engine : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Computer Science at Massey University

    Gong, Xiaohua (2002)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The World Wide Web is an amazing place that people's lives more and more rely on. Especially, for the young generation, they spend a significant amount of their play and study time using the Internet. Many tools have been developed to help the educational users in finding educational resources. These tools include various search engines. Web directories and educational domain gateways. Nevertheless, these systems have many weaknesses that made them unsuitable for the specific search needs of the learners. The research presented in this thesis describes the development of the Web-course search engine, which is a friendly, efficient and accurate helper for the learners to get what they want in the vast Internet ocean. The most attractive feature of this system is that the system uses one universal language, which lets the searchers and the resources "communicate" with each other. Then the learner searchers can find the Web-based educational resources that are most fit to their needs and course providers can provide all necessary information about their courseware. This universal language is one widely acceptable Metadata standard. Following the Metadata standard, the system collects exact information about educational resources, provides adequate search parameters for search and returns evaluative results. By using the Web-course search engine, the learners and the other educational users are able to find useful, valuable and related educational resources more effectively and efficiently. Some improvement suggestions of the search mechanism in the World Wide Web have been brought forward for the future research as a result of this project.

    View record details
  • The significance of gender and sexuality : a study of discrimination and equal employment opportunities policy in the state sector : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Work at Massey University

    Raven, Anthea (1991)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The purposes of this study are twofold. The first is to look at the experiences of lesbian social workers in order to describe the themes and patterns characteristic of discrimination within the context of their professional and employment status in the state sector. The second is to examine whether the policy of Equal Employment Opportunities for women in the Department Of Social Welfare adequately addresses discrimination against lesbians, and the extent to which the needs of lesbians can be met within the existing framework of the policy. It has been proposed in this study that discrimination against lesbians in the workplace is a real and tangible source of oppression termed 'heterosexism'. Lesbian social workers' employment experiences indicate that these are qualitatively different from those of heterosexual women. Analysis of these experiences relies upon an understanding of the historical social, sexual and economic dynamic of male power over women. Heterosexuality has been emphasised as the only acceptable sexuality and therefore, an institutionalised form of control over all women's lives. One of the consequences of this control is the denial of the existence of lesbianism. This is because lesbianism represents an independent and alternative lifestyle and family structure. While this threatens the traditional male defined nuclear family relations it also challenges the view that women should be treated as economically dependent upon a man. There is strong evidence to suggest that gender is a significant determinant of employment opportunities. Thus, there is a clear basis for recognising women as a target group for special attention under an Equal Employment Opportunities policy. However, this study challenges the assumption that the needs of all women can be adequately addressed within the context of a hetero-relational model. For example, it is argued here that the underlying criteria for access to employment opportunities is based on conformity to traditional gender roles and stereotypes. This reinforces women's economic dependency on a man and a male controlled labour market. The view that women's equality should depend on their social, sexual and economic relations with men is therefore questioned. In contrast it is argued that lesbians should be able to benefit from their social, sexual and economic independence from a man and that any measure of their employment position in relation to men is a measure for all women. The radical potential for Equal Employment Opportunities policy for all women may well depend upon the inclusion of lesbians and their legal protection from discrimination.

    View record details
  • The origin and evolution of urban form in Wanganui East, Gonville and Castlecliff : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Dickson, Thomas Gordon (1970)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The decision to study the urban form of Wanganui East, Gonville and Castlecliff (Plates 1,2 and 3) was made in 1968 after discussions with Mr. Ross, the then Town Planner for the City of Wanganui. Tho topic was chosen for two reasons. It was felt that the results could provide an insight into the evolution and nuture of the suburbs concerned, which would be of use to the City Planners. In addition it allowed for study in depth of concepts which appeared to be of considerable relevance not only to the geographer, but to the community as a whole. The three suburbs were selected because they alone within the present Borough of Wanganui had once existed as separate towns (see AppendixA), and it was thought that because of this they might exhibit distinctive characteristics in their physical form. This hypothesis appeared to be supported by a preliminary investigation of the material available. Concomitant with this assumption and resultant hypothesis was the belief that it was in any case important to examine and identify the elements of form in urban areas. It was felt that these, if investigated properly, could be helpful in correcting some of the problems inherent in the suburbs, and in New Zealand towns in general.

    View record details
  • Christa Wolf, Kein Ort, nirgends : an analysis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in German at Massey University

    Byers, Greg (1984)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Some German throughout.

    View record details
  • Web-based asynchronous synchronous environment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Information Science in Computer Science at Massey University

    Yang, Ang (2002)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In the face of the coming of new information technology era of 21st century, web-based learning has become the major trend of future teaching and learning model. The web-based learning systems are created to simulate the real teaching-learning environment in the classroom using computer software and web-based tools. Learner can study web-based teaching materials according to their individual needs and instructional schedule. Although web-based learning has a lot of advantages over traditional face-to-face learning, the lack of the explanations and interpretation of teaching materials from human teacher in most existing web-based learning system is critical. This project proposed an innovative solution to the problem by combining the benefits of classroom learning in the web-based education. In this project, a prototype Web-based Asynchronous Synchronous Environment (WASE) is developed that not only combines the benefits of tools such as WebCT and AudioGraph, but also integrates lectures given by the human teacher within the system. WASE provides simultaneous low-bandwidth streaming of lecture video and presentation, while facilitating students with presentation annotation facilities, and peer discussion on particular issues related to the topic. The prototype system is built using a three-tier, client-server architecture. The client tier is a set of HTML frames embedded with RealPlayer running in the students' web browsers to provide course contents and navigation guide. The middle tier is an application server which consists of Java Sevlet, JSP engine, and application programs to receive the students' request and send the corresponding course contents and navigation guide information to the client side. The third tier is the relational database for storing the course structure and contents, and for recording the interaction between students and teachers. This project provides a solution where the off-campus students are able to enjoy the explanations and interpretation of course materials from human teacher just as normal on-campus students do in the traditional face-to-face learning environment, while still reaping the benefits of web-based learning.

    View record details
  • The sense in humour : a personal exploration of humour in the teaching of adults : some questions and tentative answers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education in Adult Education at Massey University

    Watt, Iain J (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is a personal exploration of the potential applications of humour in the teaching of adults. I have provided some questions and tentative answers about the use of humour in the facilitation of adult learning. Having recognised the value of humour in my own teaching practice, I have examined the ways in which humour, when applied appropriately, can promote creative thinking by enhancing the processes of knowing, perceiving and discovering. Adult learning has been said to be a means of gaining knowledge and skills, a way to satisfy learner needs and a process of critical self-reflection that may lead to transformation. Adult education can involve challenging periods of transformation and students may require assistance to overcome inhibitions, behaviours and beliefs about themselves their culture and learning. In this thesis I have sought to explore how humour, manifesting itself in verbal, written and visual formats, may be a valuable pedagogical tool to address such issues. One of the purposes of this thesis is to contribute to knowledge in teaching practice by demonstrating that the systematic and informed introduction of humour into individual teaching strategics may provide a more people-centred climate which addresses individual and group learning needs from the perspective of teacher and student.

    View record details
  • Was it worth it? : evaluating outcomes for students who undertook the Diploma in Supported Employment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Social Policy at Massey University

    Taylor, John (2005)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis evaluates self-reported outcomes from 12 students who enrolled in the Diploma in Supported Employment during the three intakes funded by the Ministry of Social Development (2001-2002). It explores how the content and delivery of the diploma have met student needs and expectations, and assisted them in their practice as supported employment practitioners. The research is conducted within the environment of disability and the vocational rehabilitation sector of New Zealand, where the focus of endeavour is assisting disabled people with their employment aspirations. The sector is predominantly funded through contribution from central government and is in the process of a paradigm shift. Research indicates that the vocational sector has traditionally operated on the individual or medical understanding of disability, which equates disability with impairment and characterises it as some unfortunate or catastrophic, chance occurrence that has befallen the individual. The emerging paradigm is that disability is socially constructed, having its roots in critical social theory. Supported employment is in keeping with the new paradigm shift and has become a major government strategy in supporting disabled people. The Diploma in Supported Employment was originally conceived as a way to provide the necessary skills to a largely untrained workforce. Its delivery was the first ever attempt at coordinated training across this sector. The Ministry of Social Development, to further their policy objectives, supported existing vocational sector staff to enrol. The thesis therefore represents a timely and pertinent evaluation of the effectiveness of the Diploma in Supported Employment and will assist future planning for work force development in the vocational sector. A qualitative methodology is employed to explore students' lived reality through six individual interviews and a focus group of an additional six past students. The analysis privileges the student voice and key factors that support the student to complete the qualification and to apply their new knowledge in their work are identified. This project has potential public policy implications and makes recommendations for future practice and research.

    View record details
  • The wedded soul : mystical marriage in late medieval female mysticism : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Logan, Jeanne-Marie (2003)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    From its first days in the early Church onwards, mystical marriage between the soul and God was powerful, pervasive and malleable, both as a concept and as a lifestyle and belief system, and was increasingly used and developed by late medieval female mystics as their chosen form of exclusive holy life and individual expression of their own spirituality. At the root of its power and potential in the spiritual life of the mystic was the deep, intimate, unmediated and heightened relationship with God which mystical union encapsulated. This mystical relationship was considered the apex of holy and mystical life and brought with it all the attached privileges of a personal connection to God, mystical experiences and spiritual gifts and power. Mystical marriage or union came under the category of bridal mysticism, the mystical system which took its form and expression from the spiritualised concept of marriage. The range of experiences and nuanccs available through the metaphor of marriage made bridal mysticism a strongly expressive and sensory based alternative to the intellectual mysticism of the medieval Church, which female mystics were virtually cut off from. The expressive and mystical potential of bridal mysticism, and thus mystical marriage, was recognised by late medieval female mystics and brought union with God to the centre of female mysticism, at the same time as female mysticism and religious devotion itself was growing and flourishing (1), and holy life was becoming more publicly practiced and more popular with the laity (2).

    View record details
  • The stitchbird (hihi-- Notiomystis cincta) and its habitat : effects on nesting behaviour and reproductive success : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Conservation Biology at Massey University

    Makan, Troy Dahya (2006)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis grew out of a basic problem in the management of a "Nationally Endangered" New Zealand bird species, the stitchbird. Following European colonisation of New Zealand it is hypothesized that predation and severe habitat loss along with disease, extirpated stitchbird from the North Island and reduced the distribution to a single population on Little Barrier Island. Efforts to recover the stitchbird have involved many translocations to other islands. Three of these translocations failed and the remaining three populations only persist due to intensive management by the Department of Conservation, mainly through supplementary feeding and provision of nesting boxes, as a way of artificially enhancing the island habitats. The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of habitat on stitchbird nesting behaviour and reproductive success. To investigate this, I conducted research that aimed to relate stitchbird parental provisioning, reproductive success and habitat on Little Barrier Island, the single self-sustaining population of stitchbird from where little information was previously available. I then examined these results with similar data from three other stitchbird populations (Kapiti, Tiritiri Matangi and Mokoia Islands) to assess the effects of management enhanced and unmanaged habitats on stitchbird. An in-depth analysis of habitat structure was then conducted in two of the populations (Little Barrier and Kapiti Islands). These data were then analysed with respect to the reproductive success of these populations (with Kapiti's reproductive success being taken during the period when there was little management). When all islands are considered, conservation management, through the provisioning of nest boxes and feeders led to a significant increase in fledging success. This habitat management did not affect paternal behaviour. Although maternal investment was highly variable between individuals, females showed increased visitation rates when their habitat was enhanced through conservation management. In the unmanaged populations habitat complexity and nest tree size were found to be very important to the reproductive success of the stitchbird. Regardless of management and location, habitat quality played an integral part in determining the pattern of parental investment, and significantly affected reproductive success. In the unmanaged populations habitat complexity may provide a proximate assessment of overall habitat quality, while nest tree size may influence the internal microclimate of the nesting cavities. It appears that in lower quality habitats, parent's trade off their own survival against current and future reproduction. Conservation managers have managed to offset the restrictions of low quality habitat by enhancing habitats to a higher quality than natural environments. Now there is a need to find new sites where self- sustaining populations can be established, without the aid of expensive conservation management. I have found that it may be important to consider not only the phenology of the habitat, but also its complexity and the availability of large potential nest trees when considering new translocation sites.

    View record details
  • The seasonal and spatial dynamics in the phytomacrofaunal communities of Lake Henley, Mastert : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Ecology at Massey Universityon

    Miller, Rosemary Jean (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Spatial and seasonal dynamics of macrophyte beds in Lake Henley, a shallow artificial lake in Masterton, were examined between June 1993 and June 1994. Observed fluctuations in macrophyte biomass were linked with changes in filamentous algae associated with the weed beds. Invertebrate communities associated with submerged macrophytes were also examined at multiple sites between June 1993 and June 1994. Overall community composition was related more to seasonal influences than differences between sites within the lake. However, species richness and abundance did differ spatially. Recommendations for the ongoing management of Lake Henley, including management of the macrophyte beds and the maintenance of water quality and quantity, are made with respect to the ecological characteristics of the lake. The influence of trophic status on macrophyte invertebrate communities was also explored with a survey conducted in May 1994 of 13 other lakes in the North Island. Nutrient enriched lakes were characterised by phytomacrofaunal communities with high abundance and higher numerical dominance, whereas nutrient poor lake phytomacrofaunal communities were characterised by lower abundances but higher diversity of some taxonomic groups, particularly insects.

    View record details
  • The social and psychological effects of the Ruapehu eruptions within the Ohakune community : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Millar, Marian (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Page 7 is missing.

    View record details
  • Geographie und Utopie : die Suche nach dem Ort in Günter Eichs Lyrik : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in German at Massey University

    Jackson, Irene Charlotte (1980)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis probes the rôle and significance of Geography and Utopia in Günter Eich's poetry. Throughout his four main volumes of poetry a clear pattern of geographical contraction and expansion becomes apparent. In essence, the very wide and indefinite geographical concepts (such as the world, the wind, the clouds etc.) of his first snail volume 'Gedichte' contracts into the more specific, definite and localized names of individual places throughout Germany in tha first of his major volumes 'Abgelegene Gehöfte'. With the confinement theme of his 'imprisonment poems' the geographical contraction reaches its climax in an 'epicentre' pinpointed in a very small area around the Rhine. This geographical contraction interestingly closely parallels the poet's own personal 'contraction' (his physical confinement behind barbed wire) and his emotional-spiritual 'contraction' (withdrawal into a state of utter despair). From this generalized brough the geographical pattern moves back into an expansionary phase. From this point onwards (i.e. throughout the last three volumes) one notices a gradual expansion of geographical names to embrace the whole of Germany, then Europe and finally the wider world. However this movement of geographical names is not paralleled in the emotional-spiritual sphere. Instead it is this time counteracted by Eich's gradual withdrawal into his private world, seeking refuge in a self-created 'ivory tower', as symbolized by the 'Steingarten' in "Anlässe und Steingärten". The geographical expansion culminates notably in the ultimate distintegration of geographic names in his later poems, signifying the depth of Eich's apparent total disregard for and disinterest in this imperfect world. Günter Eich delivers a significant message about the nature and meaning of his poetry in a talk entitled "Der Schriftsteller vor der Realität" ("The writer before Reality"). Included in this is the statement (reproduced in the original German on page 1): "I write poetry to orientate myseif towards the truth. I regard them as trigonometrical points or as buoys which mark the course into an unknown area." Not only does Eich supply us with such a direct statement of his search for the true Reality (i.e. his 'Utopia' perhaps) but he uses geographical terminology to convey his meaning and - within the selected poems - a geographical 'explorer' theme in his unsuccessful attempt to complete it. Not finding this lasting 'Utopia', his true reality, through a dream-like regression into Nature, he goes in pursuit of it into 'this human world'. As his "trigonometrical points or buoys" he initially shows a preference for small isolated places, again indicating Eich's possible expectation of the nature of "the unknown area" he is relentlessly and almost obsessively seeking. Perhaps predictably, it is neither here nor anywhere else in 'this world' that he is able to find his Utopia, which presumably only death ultimately can reveal to him. 'This world', therefore, localized and pinpointed in terms of geographical places, presents itself more and more as a modern 'locus terribilis' - a reality in ruins, in contrast to the longed-for harmonious and united Utopia. Günter Eich comes closest to his Utopia through an apparent transcendence of the world through natural geographical heights and finally in his (self-created) 'ivory tower' world (symbolized by the very artificial and barren 'Steingarten', which at the same time is a reflection of what the world has become to him). Ironically it took a world-wide search (geographically-speaking) to enable him to come across these Japanese Stonegardens, again re-emphasizing the primary role of Geography and its link with Utopia in his poetry. The developed pattern of geographical names and places thus becomes a symbol of Eich's search for the 'actual Truth' the Utopia, which increasingly reveals itself as a 'U-topos', namely (and significantly) a place which does not exist here on earth. In fact this is startlingly illustrated by the final explicit disintegration of the geographical names he uses. Another inter-related observation is quite fascinating. Graphically represented, the geographical pattern of contraction and expansion can be seen in terms of a 'V'-formation. This structural form appears to symbolize 'the free flight of birds' (which parallels the notion of omniscience behind Eich's 'ornithological motif') and maps out a trigonometrical entity which again stresses the rôle and importance of Geography and its relationship to Utopia in the poetry of this ever-searching explorer-poet.

    View record details
  • The evaluation of stakeholder relationship marketing information systems : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies in Marketing at Massey University

    Pescott, Christopher James (2004)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Modern business is evolving, the large profit driven organisations of the past have dissipated and responsible, triple bottom line, sustainability focused organisations are pioneering global business practices. The new goal for modern businesses is to become more transparent to their stakeholders, compile triple bottom line reports, and to become a sustainable organisation. To do this an organisation needs to identify who its stakeholders are. Literature in this stakeholder area is vast and has been traced back to the 1930's. However in order to uncover how organisations may utilize stakeholder management to enhance their business practice, there is a clear definition of what a stakeholder actually is. "those with a vital stake in the organisation without whose sanction and support would cease to exist." (Murphy et al., 2004) Stakeholders can have many different relationships with an organisation so there are multiple perceptions on how an organisation is performing through the eyes of its stakeholders. To gain a true understanding of how to communicate with stakeholders, there must be a suitable classification of stakeholder groups. "It is commonsense to consider the five stakeholder groups as being indispensable in the functioning of a sustainable business. The business is financed by shareholders, is allowed to exist by the community, has suppliers providing materials and services, for employees to create goods and services, which customers purchase in preference to competitors' goods and services." (Murphy et al., 2004)

    View record details
  • Shifting cultivation, livelihoods and change : a study of agricultural decisions in Xieng Ngeun District, Lao PDR : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Whittaker, Sarah (2006)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Shifting cultivation has long provided a livelihood for upland farmers in the tropics. However, recent years have seen increasing political, environmental and economic pressure on these farming systems and those who practice them. In the Lao PDR, shifting cultivation is a priority development issue; government policy is to replace it with sedentary forms of agriculture by the year 2010. Alternatives to existing practices are being researched and extended to farmers through both the public and private sector, and farmers are faced with an increasing range of choices for their livelihoods, which remain largely agriculturally-based. Their responses to these new opportunities, and their ability to take advantage of them, will be important to the sustainability of their livelihoods into the future. Recognising that agricultural changes take place in the context of people's livelihoods, this thesis applies a livelihoods approach to the study of household agricultural decisions in the Lao PDR. It investigates farmer responses to introduced forage technologies for the intensification of livestock production in four upland villages of Xieng Ngeun District, in order to explore the relationship between livelihoods and change. Many aspects of people's livelihoods are found to shape their decisions. In particular, access to resources can be important in the ability to take advantage of opportunities. Activities such as livestock raising require an initial cash investment that may preclude poorer households from specialising in them; thus these households are less able to benefit from livestock-related technologies. Households' existing livelihood strategies and the resulting livelihood outcomes also influence their ability and desire to intensify livestock production through managed forages. The wider context within which livelihoods are constructed may both facilitate and constrain change in a particular direction. In addition to those issues commonly identified in livelihoods frameworks, other factors also need to be considered. The importance of farmer perceptions in particular is highlighted and it is suggested that this, along with the characteristics of the technology itself in relation to people's livelihood situation, be included in the framework for application to the study of agricultural change. Finally, the thesis finds the livelihoods approach to be a useful and practical way of focusing attention on issues at the local level and placing rural people at the centre of development-related analysis.

    View record details
  • A single woman's place : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English at Massey University

    Bishop, Gailene Paula (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is a study of selected novels by Anita Brookner and Muriel Spark. It explores the depiction of women as figures of resistance and insurgence in the novels Look At Me and Hotel du Lac by Anita Brookner, and in The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie and The Abbess of Crewe written by Muriel Spark. The study looks first at the way the role of the single woman is structured, and functions as a location of resistance and subversion. The specific characters are Frances Hinton in Look At Me, and Edith Hope in Hotel du Lac and Jean Brodie in The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie, and the Abbess Alexandra in The Abbess of Crewe. The second focus is to determine whether a transfigurative process is enacted, how, and upon what. The women characters are the pivotal location for the transfigurative processes, and their characterisation reveals what is disclosed, and what is transfigured. The proposal is that those transfigurative processes subvert culturally constructed notions, or commonplaces, about how women may see, and be seen, in the social environments presented in the novels. The transfiguration of these nominal commonplaces is revealed in Brookner's work through the processes of change, which are depicted as necessary for the key characters to undergo. Transfiguration abounds in Spark's work as her satire and parody mock all social norms. Finally, this thesis looks specifically at the relation between the consolidated material from the process outlined above and two general strategic approaches to women's writing. The first strategy is the revisionist approach that proposes a re-writing of traditional texts as a method of challenging and subverting the hierarchical constraints found in those texts. The other strategy advocates the appropriation of dominant patriarchal models for women to use in writing about women, and supports effecting change from within those models.

    View record details
  • A viscometric study of rheological interaction between selected commercial dairy proteins and selected gums in aqueous solution : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Food Technology at Massey University

    Kotaratititam, Wichai (1991)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Rheological interaction between solutions of four selected gum (locust bean gum (LB), sodium carboxymethycellutose (CMC), lambda-carrageenan (CR), xanthan gum (XN)) and solutions of four dairy proteins (sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein concentrate (WPC), coprecipitate (TMP), whey protein isolate (WPI)) were studied by steady shear viscometry using a Bohlin VOR Rheometer at 25°C, natural pH and natural ionic strength. The rheological properties of mixed solutions were greatly influenced by presence of gum, gum concentration and gum type. Rheological synergism, with no obvious shear rate dependence, occurred between LB and SC, LB and WPC, LB and TMP, CMC and all dairy proteins, CR and WPC, CR and TMP, and XN and WPC. The degree of synergism, which was determined in a new way, was relatively much greater with TMP. The results are discussed in terms of Ca2+ bridging for TMP synergism and in terms of electrostatic and molecular space occupancy effects for SC, WPC and WPI synergism. No significant interaction occured between LB and WPI or between CR and SC or between CR and WPI or between XN and SC or between XN and TMP or between XN and WPI. Quantitative measures of synergism in mixed solutions prepared from 0.5% gum solution and 6.0% dairy protein solution were in close agreement with similar measures of synergism in mixed solutions prepared from 1.2% gum, 10.0% daily protein and distilled water. Rheogical synergism was found to be unrelated to phase separation in the mixed solutions provided the phases remained intimately mixed. The relevance of this work to the use of the gum-dairy protein mixtures as rheologically-functional food ingredients is discussed.

    View record details